Section I Use of English
Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark A, B, C or D on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
Thinner isn’t always better. A number of studies have 1 that normal-weight people are in fact at higher risk of some diseases compared to those who are overweight. And there are health conditions for which being overweight is actually 2 . for example, heavier women are less likely to develop calcium deficiency than thin women. 3 , among the elderly, being somewhat overweight is often an 4 of good health.
Of even greater 5 is the fact that obesity turns out to be very difficult to define. It is often defined 6 body mass index, or BMI. BMI 7 body mass divided by the square of height. An adult with a BMI of 18 to 25 is often considered to be normal weight. Between 25 and 30 is overweight. And over 30 is considered obese. Obesity, 8 , can be divided into moderately obese, severely obese, and very severely obese
While such numerical standards seem 9 , they are not. Obesity is probably less a matter of weight than body fat . Some people with a high BMI are in fact extremely fit, 10 others with a low BMI may be in poor 11 . For example, many collegiate and professional football players 12 as obese, though their percentage body fat is low. Conversely, someone with a small frame may have high body fat but a 13 BMI.
Today we have a(an) 14 to label obesity as a disgrace. The overweight are sometimes 15 in the media with their faces covered. Stereotypes 16 with obesity include laziness, lack of will power, and lower prospects for success. Teachers, employers, and health professionals have been shown to harbor biases against the obese. 17 very young children tend to look down on the overweight, and teasing about body build has long been a problem in schools.
Negative attitudes toward obesity, 18 in health concerns, have stimulated a number of anti-obesity 19 . My own hospital system has banned sugary drinks from its facilities。 Many employers have instituted weight loss and fitness initiatives. Michelle Obama has launched a high-visibility campaign 20 childhood obesity, even claiming that it represents our greatest national security threat.
1. [A] denied [B] concluded [C] doubled [D] ensured
2. [A] protective [B] dangerous [C] sufficient [D]troublesome
3. [A] Instead [B] However [C] Likewise [D] Therefore
4. [A] indicator [B] objective [C] origin [D] example
5. [A] impact [B] relevance [C] assistance [D] concern
6. [A] in terms of [B] in case of [C] in favor of [D] in respect of
7. [A] measures [B] determines [C] equals [D] modifies
8. [A] in essence [B] in contrast [C] in turn [D] in part
9. [A] complicated [B] conservative [C] variable [D] straightforward
10. [A] so [B] while [C] since [D] unless
11. [A] shape [B] spirit [C] balance [D] taste
12. [A] start [B] qualify [C] retire [D] stay
13. [A] strange [B] changeable [C] normal [D] constant
14. [A] option [B] reason [C] opportunity [D] tendency
15. [A] employed [B] pictured [C] imitated [D] monitored
16. [A] compared [B] combined [C] settled [D] associated
17. [A] Even [B] Still [C] Yet [D] Only
18. [A] despised [B] corrected [C] ignored [D] grounded
19. [A] discussions [B] businesses [C] policies [D] studies
20. [A] for [B] against [C] with [D] without
Section II Reading Comprehension
Directions: Read the following four texts. answer the question after each text by choosing A,B,C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1.(40 points)
What would you do with $590m? This is now a question for Gloria MacKenzie, an 84-year-old widow who recently emerged from her small, tin-roofed house in Florida to collect the biggest undivided lottery jackpot in history. If she hopes her new-found for tune will yield lasting feelings of fulfillment, she could do worse than read “Happy Money” by Elizabeth Dunn and Michael Norton.
These two academics use an array of behavioral research to show that the most rewarding ways to spend money can be counterintuitive. Fantasies of great wealth often involve visions of fancy cars and extravagant homes .Yet satisfaction with these material purchases wears off fairly quickly. What was once exciting and new becomes old-hat; regret creeps in. It is far better to spend money on experiences, say Ms Dunn and Mr. Norton, like interesting trips, unique meals or even going to the cinema. These purchases often become more valuable with time—as stories or memories—particularly if they involve feeling more connected to others.
This slim volume is packed with tips to help wage slaves as well as lottery winners get the most “happiness bang for your buck”. It seems most people would be better off if they could shorten their commutes to work, spend more time with friends and family and less of it watching television (something the average American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it). Buying gifts or giving to charity is often more pleasurable than purchasing things for oneself, and luxuries are most enjoyable when they are consumed sparingly. This is apparently the reason McDonald’s restricts the availability of its popular McRib—a marketing trick that has turned the pork sandwich into an object of obsession.
Readers of “Happy Money” are clearly a privileged lot, anxious about fulfillment, not hunger. Money may not quite buy happiness, but people in wealthier countries are generally happier than those in poor ones. Yet the link between feeling good and spending money on others can be seen among rich and poor people around the world, and scarcity enhances the pleasure of most things for most people. Not everyone will agree with the authors’ policy ideas, which range from mandating more holiday time to reducing tax incentives for American homebuyers. But most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent.
21. According to Dumn and Norton, which of the following is the most rewarding purchase?
A.A big house B.A special tour C.A stylish car D.A rich meal
22. The author’s attitude toward Americans’ watching TV is ?
A. critical B. Supportive C. sympathetic D. ambiguous
23. Macrib is mentioned in paragraph 3 to show that .
A. consumers are sometimes irrational B. popularity usually comes after quality
C. marketing tricks are after effective D. rarity generally increases pleasure
24. According to the last paragraph, Happy Money .
A. has left much room for readers’criticism B. may prove to be a worthwhile purchase
C. has predicted a wider income gap in the U.S D. may give its readers a sense of achievement
25. This text mainly discusses how to .
A. balance feeling good and spending money B. spend large sums of money won in lotteries
C. obtain lasting satisfaction from money spent D. become more reasonable in spending on luxuries
An article in Scientific America has pointed out that empirical research says that, actually, you think you’re more beautiful than you are. We have a deep-seated need to feel good about ourselves and we naturally employ a number of self-enhancing strategies to achieve this .Social psychologist have massed oceans of research into what they call the “above average effect”, or “illusory superiority”, and shown that, for example, 70% of us rate ourselves as above average in leadership, 93% in driving and 85% at getting on well with others—all obviously statistical impossibilities.
We rose-tint our memories and put ourselves into self-affirming situations. We become defensive when criticized, and apply negative stereotypes to others to boost our own esteem, we stalk around thinking we’re hot stuff.
Psychologist and behavioral scientist Nicholas Epley oversaw a key studying into self-enhancement and attractiveness. Rather that have people simply rate their beauty compress with others, he asked them to identify an original photograph of themselves from a lineup including versions that had been altered to appear more and less attractive. Visual recognition, reads the study, is “an automatic psychological process occurring rapidly and intuitively with little or no apparent conscious deliberation”. If the subjects quickly chose a falsely flattering image- which must did- they genuinely believed it was really how they looked.
Epley found no significant gender difference in responses. Nor was there any evidence that, those who self-enhance the most (that is, the participants who thought the most positively doctored picture were real) were doing so to make up for profound insecurities. In fact those who thought that the images higher up the attractiveness scale were real directly corresponded with those who showed other makers for having higher self-esteem. “I don’t think the findings that we having have are any evidence of personal delusion”, says Epley. “It’s a reflection simply of people generally thinking well of themselves’. If you are depressed, you won’t be self-enhancing.
Knowing the results of Epley’s study,it makes sense that why people hate photographs of themselves so viscerally-on one level, they don’t even recognize the person in the picture as themselves, Facebook ,therefore ,is a self-enhancer’s paradise, where people can share only the most flattering photos, the cream of their wit ,style ,beauty, intellect and lifestyle it’s not that people’s profiles are dishonest, says catalina Toma of Wisconsin—Madison university ,”but they portray an idealized version of themselves.
26. According to the first paragraph, social psychologist have found that ______.
A. our self-ratings are unrealistically high B. illusory superiority is baseless effect
C. our need for leadership is unnatural D.self-enhancing strategies are ineffective
27. Visual recognition is believed to be people’s ______.
A. rapid watching B. conscious choice C. intuitive response D. automatic self-defense
28. Epley found that people with higher self-esteem tended to ______.
A. underestimate their insecurities B. believe in their attractiveness
C. cover up their depressions D. oversimplify their illusions
29.The word “Viscerally”(Line 2,para.5) is closest in meaning to ______.
A. instinctively B. Occasionally C. particularly D. aggressively
30. It can be inferred that Facebook is self-enhancer’s paradise because people can ______.
A. present their dishonest profiles B. define their traditional life styles
C. share their intellectual pursuits D. withhold their unflattering sides
The concept of man versus machine is at least as old as the industrial revolution, but this phenomenon tends to be most acutely felt during economic downturns and fragile recoveries. And yet, it would be a mistake to think we are right now simply experiencing the painful side of a boom and bust cycle. Certain jobs have gone away for good, outmoded by machines. Since technology has such an insatiable appetite for eating up human jobs, this phenomenon will continue to restructure our economy in ways we can't immediately foresee.
When there is exponential improvement in the price and performance of technology, jobs that were once thought to be immune from automation suddenly become threatened. This argument has attracted a lot of attention, via the success of the book Race Against the Machine, by Erik Brynjolfsson and Andrew McAfee, who both hail from MIT's Center for Digital Business.
This is a powerful argument, and a scary one. And yet, John Hagel, author of The Power of Pull and other books, says Brynjolfsson and McAfee miss the reason why these jobs are so vulnerable to technology in the first place.
Hagel says we have designed jobs in the U.S. that tend to be "tightly scripted" and "highly standardized" ones that leave no room for "individual initiative or creativity." In short, these are the types of jobs that machines can perform much better at than human beings. That is how we have put a giant target sign on the backs of American workers, Hagel says.
It's time to reinvent the formula for how work is conducted, since we are still relying on a very 20th century notion of work, Hagel says. In our rapidly changing economy, we more than ever need people in the workplace who can take initiative and exercise their imagination "to respond to unexpected events." That's not something machines are good at. They are designed to perform very predictable activities.
As Hagel notes, Brynjolfsson and McAfee indeed touched on this point in their book. We need to reframe race against the machine as race with the machine. In other words, we need to look at the ways in which machines can augment human labor rather than replace it. So then the problem is not really about technology, but rather, "how do we innovate our institutions and our work practices?"
31. According to the first paragraph, economic downturns would _____.
A. ease the competition of man vs. Machine B. highlight machines’ threat to human jobs
C. provoke a painful technological revolution D. outmode our current economic structure
32. The authors of Race Against the Machine argue that _____.
A. technology is diminishing man’s job opportunities
B. automation is accelerating technological development
C. certain jobs will remain intact after automation
D. man will finally win the race against machine
33. Hagel argues that jobs in the U.S. are often _____.
A. performed by innovative minds B. scripted with an individual style
C. standardized without a clear target D. designed against human creativity
34. According to the last paragraph, Brynjolfsson and McAfee discussed _____.
A. the predictability of machine behavior in practice
B. the formula for how work is conducted efficiently
C. the ways machines replace human labor in modern times
D. the necessity of human involvement in the workplace
35. Which of the following could be the most appropriate title for the text?
A. How to Innovate Our Work Practices B. Machines will Replace Human Labor
C. Can We Win the Race Against Machines D. Economic Downturns Stimulate Innovations
When the government talks about infrastructure contributing to the economy the focus is usually on roads, railways, broadband and energy. Housing is seldom mentioned.
Why is that? To some extent the housing sector must shoulder the blame. We have not been good at communicating the real value that housing can contribute to economic growth. Then there is the scale of the typical housing project. It is hard to shove for attention among multibillion-pound infrastructure project, so it is inevitable that the attention is focused elsewhere. But perhaps the most significant reason is that the issue has always been so politically charged.
Nevertheless, the affordable housing situation is desperate. Waiting lists increase all the time and we are simply not building enough new homes.
The comprehensive spending review offers an opportunity for the government to help rectify this. It needs to put historical prejudices to one side and take some steps to address our urgent housing need.
There are some indications that it is preparing to do just that. The communities minister, Don Foster, has hinted that George Osborne, Chancellor of the Exchequer, may introduce more flexibility to the current cap on the amount that local authorities can borrow against their housing stock debt. Evidence shows that 60,000 extra new homes could be built over the next five years if the cap were lifted, increasing GDP by 0.6%.
Ministers should also look at creating greater certainty in the rental environment, which would have a significant impact on the ability of registered providers to fund new developments from revenues.
But it is not just down to the government. While these measures would be welcome in the short term, we must face up to the fact that the existing £4.5bn programme of grants to fund new affordable housing, set to expire in 2015,is unlikely to be extended beyond then. The Labour party has recently announced that it will retain a large part of the coalition’s spending plans if returns to power. The housing sector needs to accept that we are very unlikely to ever return to era of large-scale public grants. We need to adjust to this changing climate.
36. The author believes that the housing sector_____.
A. has attracted much attention B. involves certain political factors
C. shoulders too much responsibility D. has lost its real value in economy
37. It can be learned that affordable housing has_____.
A. increased its home supply B. offered spending opportunities
C. suffered government biases D. disappointed the government
38. According to Paragraph 5,George Osborne may_______.
A. allow greater government debt for housing B. stop local authorities from building homes
C. prepare to reduce housing stock debt D. release a lifted GDP growth forecast
39. It can be inferred that a stable rental environment would_______.
A. lower the costs of registered providers B. lessen the impact of government interference
C. contribute to funding new developments D. relieve the ministers of responsibilities
40. The author believes that after 2015, the government may______.
A. implement more policies to support housing
B. review the need for large-scale public grants
C. renew the affordable housing grants programme
D. stop generous funding to the housing sector
Directions:Read the following text and answer the questions by finding information from the left column that corresponds to each of the marked details given in the right column. There are two extra choices in the right column. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEERT 1.(10 points)
Uncommon Ground ----Land Art in Britain
The term Land Art Brings to mind epic interventions in the land such as Robert Smithson’s Spiral Jetty,6500 tons of basalt,earth and salt projecting into Utah’s Great Salt Lake,or Roden Crater,an extinct volcano in Arizona,which James Turrell has been transforming into an immense naked-eye observatory since 1979.
Richard Long’s A Line Made By Walking , however ,involved nothing more strenuous than a 20-minute-train ride from Waterloo.Having got off somewhere in suburbia ,the artist walked backwards and forwards over a piece of grass until the squashed turf formed a line –a kind of drawing on the land
Emerging in the late Sixties and reaching a peak in the Seventies, Land Art was one of a range of new forms, including Body Art, Performance Art, Action Art and Installation Art, which pushed art beyond the traditional confines of the studio and gallery. Rather than portraying landscape, land artists used the physical substance of the land itself as their medium.
The message of this survey of British land art—the most comprehensive to date –is that the British variant ,typified by Long ‘s piece ,was not only more domestically scaled,but a lot quirkier than it’s A- of records of works rather than the works themselves ,Long’s photograph of his work is the work.Since his “action”is in the past the paragraph is its sole embodiment.
That might seem rather an obscure point, but it sets the tone for an exhibition that contains a lot of black-and-white photographs and relatively few natural objects.
Long is Britain’s best-known Land Artist and his Stone Circle, a perfect ring of purplish rocks from Portishead beach laid out on the gallery floor, represents the elegant, rarefied side of the form. The Boyle Family, on the other hand, stand for its dirty, urban aspect. Comprising artists Mark Boyle and Joan Hills and their children, they recreated random sections of the British landscape on gallery walls. Their Olaf Street Study, a square of brick-strewn waste ground, is one of the few works here to embrace the mundanity that characterises most of our experience of the landscape most of the time.
Parks feature, particularly in the earlier works, such as John Hilliard’s very funny. Across the Park, in which a long-haired stroller is variously smiled at by a pretty girl and unwittingly assaulted in a sequence of images that turn out to be different parts of the same photograph.
Generally however British land artists preferred to get away from towns, gravitating towards landscapes that are traditionally considered beautiful such as the Lake District or the Wiltshire Downs. While it probably wasn’t apparent at the time, much of this work is permeated by a spirit of romantic escapism that the likes of Wordsworth would have readily understood. Derek Jarman’s yellow-tinted film Towards Avebury, a collection of long, mostly still shots of the Wiltshire landscape, evokes a tradition of English landscape painting stretching from Samuel Palmer to Paul Nash.
In the case of Hamish Fulton, you can’t help feeling that the Scottish artist has simply found a way of making his love of walking pay. A typical work, such as Seven Days, consists of a single beautiful black-and-white photograph taken on an epic walk, with the mileage and number of days taken listed beneath. British Land Art as shown in this well selected, but relatively modestly scaled exhibition wasn’t about imposing on the landscape, more a kind of landscape-orientated light conceptual art created passing through. It had its origins in the great outdoors, but the results were as gallery-bound as the paintings of Turner and Constable
[A]originates from a long walk that the artist took.
[B]illustrates a kind of landscape-orientated light conceptual art.
42.Olaf Street Study
[C]reminds people of the English landscape painting tradition.
43.Across the Park
[D]represents the elegance of the British land art.
[E]depicts the ordinary side of the British land art.
[F]embodies a romantic escape into the Scottish outdoors.
[G]contains images from different parts of the same photograph.
Section III Translation
46. Directions: Translate the following text from English to Chinese. Write your translation on ANSWER SHEET2. (15 points)
Most people would define optimism as endlessly happy, with a glass that’s perpetually half full. But that’s exactly the kind of false cheerfulness that positive psychologists wouldn’t recommend. “Healthy optimism means being in touch with reality,” says Tal Ben-Shahar, a Harvard professor. According to Ben-Shahar, realistic optimists are those who make the best of things that happen, but not those who believe everything happens for the best.
Ben-Shalar uses three optimistic exercises, When he feels down—say, after giving a bad lecture—he grants himself permission to be human. He reminds himself that not every lecture can be a Nobel winner; some will be less effective than others. Next is reconstruction . He analyzes the weak lecture, learning lessons for the future about what works and what doesn’t. Finally, there’s perspective , which involves acknowledging that in the grand scheme of life, one lecture really doesn’t matter.
Section IV Writing
47 . Directions:Suppose you are going to study abroad and share an apartment with John, a local student, write him an email to
1) tell him about your living habits, and
2) ask for advice about living there.
You should write about 100 words on answer sheet
Do not use your own name at the end of the letter .Use “Li Ming”instead
Do not write your address.
48. Directions: Write an essay based on the following chart. In your essay, you should
1)interpret the chart, and
2)give your comments
You should write about at least 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET .
Section I Use of English
6、【答案】A in terms of
【解析】题干中,肥胖经常______体质指数，或称为BMI来定义。A、in terms of ，根据……，就……而言。B、In case of 表示在某种情况下， C、in favor of 表示赞成，以……来取代，D、in respect of，关于……。因此正确答案为A。在医学研究和临床测试中经常使用BMI作为衡量受试者健康的重要指标，希望考生能够记住这一背景知识，方便日后做题。
【解析】本题题干中BMI_____体重除以身高的平方，这里是用文字叙述了BMI指数得出的方法，也就是一个数学公式，所以equal符合题意。A measure(测量)、B determine表示确定;D modify(修订)。句义就是BMI等于体重除以身高的平方。
8、【答案】C in turn
【解析】本题题干中，肥胖_____能够分成中度肥胖、重度肥胖和极度肥胖。A、in essence(事实上、实际上); B、in contrast (相反地);C、in turn(依次); D、in part (部分地)。本句是将肥胖依次分级，所以正确答案为C。
【解析】本题可以简化为：Some … are fit, while others … may be in poor .不难看出，前后意义相反，且fit(体型健康)与in poor 对应，与之最相关是A shape(外形)，故为正确答案。“精神”、“均衡”、“品味”都相差比较远，可以排除。
【解析】本题解题关键是后半句：to stigmatize obesity(抵毁肥胖)，作为划线部分的后置定语，将四个选项“选择”“理由”“机会”“倾向”代入划线处，最符合句意的是D(倾向)。后面一句也进一步证实了(出现在媒体中的肥胖者脸都是打了马赛马的)。
【解析】空格所在句的意思是与肥胖_____的原型包括懒惰，缺乏意志力，对成功的期望值不高。空格后面提到的懒惰，缺乏意志力和对成功的期望值不高都是与肥胖相关的表现，分析四个选项，A. 与。。。相比;B 与。。。相结合;C. 和。。。和解;都不符合题意，只有D与。。。相联系，相关符合句意。
【解析】空格所在句的意思是_____小孩子蔑视超重，而且对身材的嘲笑一直是学校的一个问题。本空格缺少一个副词，根据语境记忆常识，此处应该填入表示让步关系的词汇，分析四个选项，只有A even 即使符合题意。
【解析】本段的主题是反对肥胖，本句话属于细节的句子，用来支持这个主题，空格所在句讲到米歇尔奥巴马已经发起了一个高知名度的_____儿童肥胖，甚至告诉奥兹博士，它代表了我们国家最大的安全威胁。空格中缺少词汇应该含有反对，反抗的意思，纵观四个选项，只有B against 符合题意。
Section II Reading Comprehension
21、【答案】B A special tour
【解析】细节题。答案定位在第二段的“it is far better to spend money on experiences…like interesting trips…”，意思是“花钱消费在经历方面更好……，比如说有趣的旅行……”，由此可以得知答案是B选项“一场特别的旅行”。
【解析】观点态度题。答案定位在第三段的“something the average American spends a whopping two months a year doing, and is hardly jollier for it”，意思是“普通美国人一年花两个月的时间看电视，并且看电视几乎不可能更愉快”，因此可以得知作者对于看电视的态度是A选项“批判的”。
23、【答案】D rarity generally increases pleasure
【解析】观点例证题。答案定位在第三段，文章中提到Mc Rib这个例子，用这个例子证明的论点是“luxuries are most enjoyable when they are consumed sparingly”，大意是“有节制地消费奢侈品最令人愉悦”，D选项正是这句论点句的同义替换。
24、【答案】B may prove to be a worthwhile purchase
【解析】细节题。答案定位在最后一段的最后一句“most people will come away from this book believing it was money well spent”，大意是“大多数人看完这本书后，认为物有所值”，因此可以推知B选项是正确答案。
26、【答案】A our self-ratings are unrealistically high
【解析】题目问 “根据第一段，社会心理学家发现了什么?”对应于文章第一 段第三句“社会心理学家对所谓的‘高于均数效应’或者‘虚幻的优越感’进行大量的研究，发现我们中70%的人认为自己的领导力在平均水平之上……—这些数据明显都是不可能的。”由此可知，我们对自己评价过高。故答案为[A] our self-ratings are unrealistically high。
27、【答案】C intuitive response
【解析】题目问“视觉识别被认为是人们的什么?”对应于文章第三段第三句“视觉识别是自动的心理过程，这个过程依靠直觉快速发生，且并不是故意的。”由此可知，视觉识别被认为是人们的直觉反应。故答案为[C] intuitive response。
28、【答案】B believe in their attractiveness
【解析】题目问“Epley发现有更高自尊的人倾向于怎样”。对应到第四段，第二句讲到“没有证据显示那些自我提升最多的人这样做是为了掩饰自己的不安全，接着讲到：事实上，那些认为自己的形象高于吸引力标准的人就是那些表现出更高自尊的人，故答案为[B] believe in their attractiveness。
30、【答案】[D]withhold their unflattering sides
【解析】题干问“我们可以推理出脸书(facebook)之所以是一个自我拔高者的天堂，是因为人们可以做什么?”对应于文章最后一段的第二句，该句讲到“在脸书(facebook)中，人们可以分享最满意的照片。”下文接着讲到“不是人们不诚实，而是人们展示了自己最理想的形象。”故答案为[D]withhold their unflattering sides。
31、【答案】B 第一段重点讲解的是人和机器的对决的情况僵持的时间很长，并且这个现象在经济萧条和复苏季的更严重。然后说到我们正在经受好现象带来的另外背面的影响--即吞噬着我们的工作。B选项是可以直接在文中找出的，A选项跟原文是反义，not case .C选项只是文中提到单词的拼接，并未提到该意思。D选项的主语应该是this phenomenon.
32、【答案】A 根据Race Against Machine定位到原文的第二段，32题的主干关键词是argue,对应到原文第二段的第二句话this argument可知，答案应该在第一句话，第一句话中when是时间状语从句，主句是jobs(that..) become threatened可以选出答案为A
33、【答案】D 根据人名可以定位为第三段，第三段人名Hagel说了一长句话，最后总结为in short，简而言之，机器会比人物做的更好的工作。对应选项，可以看出只有D是符合的。
35、【答案】C 根据文中出现最多的关键词，可以排除A、C选项，但是原文的行文思路是先提到越来越多的工作被机器替代了，再提到主旨-现在是我们需要做出改变的时候了，it is time to reinvent the formula for how work is conducted,然后最后一段再次强调，so后面的内容，可以得出，文章的主旨标题是C.
36、【答案】[B] involves certain political factors
【解析】根据本题题干中的关键词housing sector可以对应到文章的第二段，中间说的很多，我们注意到最后有but出现，最后应该是作者真正想要表达的观点，另外这里用了the most significant 最高级，所以最后这个是最重要的一个原因，politically charged和选项B的political factors有对应关系，故选B involves certain political factors。
A项的吸引注意没有提及，C项的承担太多责任，原文说的shoulder the blame，D项说的丧失价值，原文说的是不善于表明真正价值，两者不一致，故排除。
37、【答案】[C] suffered government biases
【解析】经济适用房曾受到政府的偏见。答案定位到文章第三段最后一句话It needs to put historical prejudices to one side and take some steps to address our urgent housing need. 政府需要把历史的偏见放在一边并且采取一些策略解决我们迫切的住房需求。Suffered 是过去式，是对于原文history 的同义反复，biases 是对原文prejudices的同义反复。
38、【答案】[A] allow greater government debt for housing
39、【答案】[C] contribute to funding new developments
【解析】推断题。根据文章题干定位到第五段，题干考察的是对稳定的租赁环境的理解。A项的意思是“减少注册供应者的成本”，其中“成本一词”并未在文中出现，属于无中生有。B项的意思是“减少政府接介入的影响”，其中“政府介入”并未在文中出现，属于无中生有。B项的意思是“有助于为新发展提供资金支持”，其中“为新发展提供资金支持”对应文中的“fund new developments”;C选项中的“contribute to”(意思是有助于)对英文中的have a significant impact(意思是有重要影响)，符合正解的同义复现原则，所以是正确选项。
40、【答案】[D] stop generous funding to the housing sector
Section IV Writing
Suppose you are going to study abroad and share an apartment with John, a local student, write him an email to
1) tell him about your living habits, and
2) ask for advice about living there
I am Li Ming, your future roommate and a new arrival from China who is coming over here for further education. I am writing this letter to let you know about me and ask for some suggestions for my future life in America.
First, I am a quiet person so that your keeping silent would be highly appreciated. Second, I like cooking and I wonder whether it is okay to you that I cook Chinese dish at home, because the preparation for Chinese cuisine may produce much smoke. Third, I want to buy a car but I know nothing about traffic rules in America. Would you please give me a lesson about traffic laws in US.
Wish you reply soon.
Write an essay based on the following chart. In your essay, you should
1) interpret the chart, and
2) give your comments.
You should write about 150 words on the ANSWER SHEET. (15 points)
As the bar graph indicates, both city and rural area witnessed a distinguished phenomenon in population fluctuation. Indeed, population in city increased at a breakneck speed and surpassed that of rural area during the period from 1990 to 2010 while population in rural region slightly decreased down to a scale which was close to that of city.
What accounts for this disparity? The answer involves two factors. The first contributing factor is the substantially fast developing steps of cities in China. No one can deny that since Chinese economic reform from 1980s which mostly benefits people in city. The second reason is that Chinese farmers enjoy the harvest from new policies that are established to benefit farmers. People in rural areas are allowed to migrate for work and residence by the law and an increasing number of farmers choose to work in city and become migrant workers just because they would make much more money than ever before in city. All these are the result of urbanization.
Based on the analyses above, we can safely draw the conclusion that the process of urbanization will continue in the years ahead, and every single Chinese benefits from the fast development of China.
From the graph, we can see that the urban population was growing and the rural population was declining from 1990 to 2010. The number of the urban population rose from 300 million in 1990 to about 460 million in 2000, and to about 685 million in 2010, while the rural population decreased from about 820 million in 1990 to 800 million in 2000 and to about 690 million in 2010. It's obvious that in the past two decades, the urban area witnessed a steady growth, but in the latter decade, the rural population had a remarkable decline.
There are two reasons for this phenomenon. On one hand, the economic boom led to the regular improvement of people’s living standard, and further resulted in a steady growing urban population. On the other hand, from 2000, the countryside urbanization oriented by the government gave rise to a conspicuously declining rural population.
In conclusion, based on the above analysis, the urban population will be growing, while the rural population will continue to drop in the future.